Douglas McGregor Douglas McGregor proposed "Theory X" and "Theory Y" to explain motivation in the workplace. His Theory X was that people avoid work because they don't like it. (is that profound or what?) People who meet the criteria for theory x are not ambitious, they want to do the minimum of work required, and they only complete tasks for job security. On the other hand, "Theory Y" refers to people who are creative and want responsibility. These people are usually ambitious and gain satisfaction from work.Recognized the importance of employee attitudes such as understanding voluntary co-operations and willing dedication in accomplishment of organizational goals. Found that employee performance is very much influenced by his attitude towards his job, associates and management. Proved that organizational firm can gain only when its employees are satisfied contented in their jobs. Pointed out that any change to be should be made should be explained and its meaning should be clear to employees. The fact that change is logical is not enough because employees may not appreciate the logic. Explored much of information on group behavior. Thus have provided the basis for much of what we know about getting along with all, problem employees in particular.
Dr. Elton Mayo led a team from Harward University which cooperated with western electric co. in the period 1927-1936 to carry out Hawthorne Experiments. They identified following details. This is not a guide to psychology. The area of motivation in that field has been extensively researched for many years and there are numerous theories of motivation, many of which have a direct influence.. What is motivation and how can we use it to move forward? If you feel you are lacking motivation, the therapists at Betterhelp can guide you towards your goals . As such, the natural system of management assumes that close-knit work teams are productive. Accordingly, if an employee's social needs are unmet, then he will act disobediently. The times have changed, however. In recent years, researchers have recognized the importance of more unified and cross-disciplinary approach to study motivation (Braver et al., 2014). This multidisciplinary, multimethod pursuit, called Motivation Science, is now an emerging field (Kruglanski, Chemikova & Kopez, 2015). Our Motivation Science lab takes an integrative approach, drawing from multiple disciplines (e.g., cognitive, social and educational psychology, cognitive/social neuroscience) and multiple approaches (e.g., behavioral experiments, longitudinal data analysis, neuroimaging, meta-analysis, statistical simulation/computational modeling, network analysis ). We explore a number of overlapping basic and applied research questions with the ultimate goal of providing an integrated view on human motivation.
Howard-Jones, P. & Jay, T. (2016). Reward, learning and games. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 10, 65-72. The article presents an empirical study data on the interrelation of success achievement motivation and psychosocial adaptation in a students' group. The structure of the social-psychological adaptation.. This is not to say that intrinsically motivated behaviors are not without rewards. It’s just that these rewards are usually internal. When you help a friend, volunteer in your community, learn a new skill, or participate in a religious activity, you are gaining something inside of yourself that acts as a reward. Feelings of satisfaction, a sense of progress, or the knowledge that you are helping others can help contribute to this sense of intrinsic motivation.Motivation is important in almost every aspect of human behavior. When you make a decision, your choice is certainly influenced by your motivational state. When you study mathematics, your motivation to study mathematics clearly affects the way you learn it. Despite its obvious importance, empirical research on motivation has been segregated in different areas for long years, making it difficult to establish an integrative view on motivation. For example, I studied a number of motivation theories proposed in educational psychology (as my PhD is in educational psychology) but these theories are not connected with the motivational theories studied in social psychology or organizational psychology. Furthermore, the way motivation is defined and theorized is fundamentally different in cognitive/affective neuroscience (Murayama, in press). In other fields such as cognitive psychology, motivation has been normally treated as a nuisance factor that needs to be controlled (see Simon, 1994). Motivation is the driving force that determines much of our behavior. Our desires can motivate us to act in positive and negative ways. In psychotherapy, motivation is used to encourage people to make..
In the literature of achievement goals, for example, people study primarily for two different goals — to master materials and develop their competence, which are called mastery goals, and to perform well in comparison to others, which are called performance goals (Dweck, 1986; Nicholls, 1984). Mastery goals and performance goals represent the same overall quantity of motivation, but they are qualitatively distinct types of motivation. We conducted a series of behavioral experiments to examine how these two different types of motivation influence learning (Murayama & Elliot, 2011).An interesting point of Apter's theory is that motivation changes and fluctuates. A person may go through a "rebellious stage" and then switch to being motivated to follow the rules. Another example is a person who is sometimes compassionate towards a pan handler and sometimes very rude towards a pan handler. 2/2 Free Articles leftRemaining Register for more | Subscribe + Save Flow is part of something called positive psychology of the psychology of happiness. Positive psychology looks into what makes a person happy. Flow can be considered as achieving happiness or at the least positive feelings. A study that was published in the journal Emotion looked at flow experienced in college students playing Tetris. The students that they were being evaluated on looks then told to wait and play Tetris. There were three categories; Easy, normal, and hard. The students that played Tetris on normal level experienced flow and were less stressed about the evaluation. Regardless of which theory of employee motivation is followed, the research studies on motivation conclude that interesting work, appreciation, pay, good working conditions, and job security are..
One straightforward interpretation is that competition has virtually no effects on task performance. But this does not fit with our phenomenological experience of competition. When we are placed in competitive situations, we can clearly feel that our motivation is altered. Therefore, we proposed an alternative motivational model that could explain the puzzlingly weak competition-performance link. I'm the Founder of Anime Motivation. The 1st anime I watched was Dragon Ball Z. Followed by Claymore, Inuyasha, Attack On Titan, and the rest as they say is history . This is an important concept in psychology as well as in business, schools, and other areas. For example, we want our children to behave and do their homework. Businesses want to get the population to buy their products. Adults may want to change the behaviors of romantic others. All of these situations are examples of times that we may want to motivate someone else to do what we want them to do. Motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic.Motivation can be conceived of as a cycle in which thoughts influence behaviours, drive performance affects thoughts, and the cycle begins again. Each stage of the cycle is composed of many dimensions including attitudes, beliefs, intentions, effort, and withdrawal, which can all affect the motivation that an individual experiences. Most psychological theories hold that motivation exists purely within the individual, but socio-cultural theories express motivation as an outcome of participation in actions and activities within the cultural context of social groups. Elliot, A.J., & Church, M.A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 218-232.
This motivation speech collection is your answer. I am a member of Toastmasters International, an organization that is dedicated to excellence and helping people to be the best that they can be Motivation in language learning plays a vital role. Motivation is regarded as an influential element in the success of any activity. It plays a crucial role in achieving the desired goals motivation meaning, definition, what is motivation: eagerness and willingness to do somethin...: Learn more
Like Clayton Alderfer, Reiss stated these desires are very individualized. People have these desires in different combinations and in different amounts, i.e. people place a higher priority on some desires versus other desires. Reiss believed that motivation problems resulted from not taking these individualized desires into account. Researchers have shown that it regulates motivation, causing individuals to initiate and persevere to obtain something either positive or negative
Cognitive behavioral therapy, or CBT, is designed to challenge your existing patterns of thoughts and behaviors. When you lack motivation, CBT can be just what you need to find and grow your motivation again. BetterHelp has a number of licensed and certified counselors that are ready to help you find the motivation that is buried deep within. Counselors are available via phone or video call, messages, or live chat-whatever is convenient for you. Read below for some reviews of BetterHelp counselors, from people experiencing similar issues.Simon, H.A. (1994). The bottleneck of attention: Connecting thought with motivation. In W. D. Spaulding (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation, Vol. 41. Integrative views of motivation, cognition, and emotion. (pp. 1-21): Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.: University of Nebraska Press. Psychologists have identified three main theories of motivation that seek to explain motivation and whether that motivation is biological, emotional, social, or cognitive. These theories include: Instinct Theory, the Theory of Drives and Needs, and Arousal Theory. Motivation and empowerment are also worked on, while are given tools so that he can In the case of teams, in addition to motivation, cooperation is also worked to promote a good climate that improves..
Abraham Maslow nimesi yhden vuonna 1954 julkaistun kirjansa Motivation and Personality luvun Lisäksi Miller väittää, että päinvastoin kuin positiivisessa psykologiassa oletetaan, henkilön toiminta.. Extrinsic motivation refers to behavior driven by external factors such as a reward or avoidance of negative outcomes. Money is the most obvious example of
Although intrinsic rewards and extrinsic rewards play a similar role in some situations, some aspects of intrinsic rewards are unique. One such aspect is metamotivation. Metamotivational belief refers to our beliefs and understanding of how motivation works (Miele & Scholer, 2018; Murayama, 2014; Scholer, Miele, Murayama & Fujita, in press). Like recent findings on metacognition (Kornell & Bjork, 2008; Murayama, Blake, Kerr & Castel, 2016), our studies indicate that people are often inaccurate in their beliefs about the motivating property of intrinsic rewards. Specifically, when we asked participants to work on a boring task and to make a prediction about how interesting the task would be, their prediction was inaccurate. Their predicted task engagement was less than their actual task engagement, indicating that people tend to underestimate their power to generate intrinsic rewards when faced with boring tasks (Murayama, Kuratomi, Johnsen, Kitagami & Hatano., under review). This inaccuracy of our metamotivational belief could partly explain why authority figures are often so reliant on extrinsic rewards to motivate other people (Murayama et al., 2016). Find motivation stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day Chapter 6- Learning Chapter 7- Human Memory Chapter 8- Thinking Chapter 9- Motivation and Emotion. Tämä sovellus sisältää Luokan 11 Psychology Ncert Solutions Your decisions and behaviors are often the result of a goal or motive you possess. This module provides an overview of the main theories and findings on goals and motivation
An example of a powerful negative reinforcer is a screaming child. The sound is so annoying that many adults will give the child anything he or she wants in order to get the screaming to stop. The child will stop screaming (take away the piercing sound) when the adult gives him or her candy (increase likelihood that behavior occurs.) Therefore, the child used negative reinforcement to motivate the adult to action, e.g. giving candy. Unfortunately, the parent used positive reinforcement by giving in to the child which will motivate the child will have more tantrums in the future! Freud's psychoanalytic theory offers the most general and well-known conception of the dynamics of motivation. This conception is so vast that it is meaningless to ask whether it is correct or..
Intrinsic motivation plays a critical role in the passion with which people pursue activities. When people feel motivated from within, they often feel not only more committed to completing a task, they also tend to take greater enjoyment in the activity. Not all tasks are intrinsically motivating, however, which is why it is important to strike a balance between fostering an internal sense of motivation as well as the use of extrinsic rewards.Motivation of employees is one function which every manager has to perform along with other managerial functions. A manager has to function as a friend and motivator of his subordinates. Motivation is useful in all aspects of life and even our family life. The same is the case with business. This dearly suggests that motivation is extremely important. It is an integral part of management process itself.Murayama, K., & Elliot, A.J. (2012). The competition–performance relation: A meta-analytic review and test of the opposing processes model of competition and performance. Psychological Bulletin, 138(6), 1035-1070. Here are 100 powerful motivational quotes to uplift and encourage you to face your challenges. But where do we get the necessary motivation from? It is important to have at hand some encouraging..
Subject, tasks and methods of investigation of psychical state of a person. Concept of mental health. Inner picture of disease. Condition of psychic functions and disease. Psychology is a science about.. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Educational Psychology Review, 84, 191-215. 7844 quotes have been tagged as motivation: Roy T. Bennett: 'Do what you love, love what you do, and with all your heart give yourself to it.', Pablo: 'N.. In contrast, extrinsic motivation is when you do something to get a reward or avoid a punishment. In this case, the motivation for your behavior comes from something outside of yourself, such as an award or a good grade.Lepper and colleagues found that expectations of rewards can also play a role in how motivation is affected by external rewards. When students expected some type of extrinsic reward for participating in activity, your motivation levels were more likely to decrease as a result. However, when rewards were unexpected, there was no effect on intrinsic motivation levels.
This is an example of how inequality would result in a decrease of motivation for both students. The "A" student would not feel validated for his or her effort and the other student would possibly quit. According to Stacy's theory, if there is inequality or "inequity" then individuals will increase or decrease their effort, they may contest the inequality and request fairness, or they may even quit entirely. Power, Fame: Political leaders may be the most obvious class of people driven by the need for power and fame, but many other professions can find this a motivating factor. This is grounded, to some extent, on the desire to have an influence over others. For example, this could include being recognized you are right and others are wrong, or being in a position to judge others.Deci, E.L, Koestner, R., Ryan, R.M, Cameron, J. (2001). Extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation in education: Reconsidered once again: Comment/Reply. Review of Educational Research, 71(1), 1-51.If you are motivated, you learn better and remember more of what you learned. This sounds like an obvious fact, but our lab showed that the reality is more nuanced. The critical fact is that not all motivations are created equal.Individual Monetary Incentives : The benefit of individual monetary incentive is available to concerned worker only. For example, F. W. Taylor suggested differential piece rate system which offers different wage rates to different workers as per their production efficiency. Different incentive wage plans are the examples of individual monetary incentives as the benefit is offered individually to every worker. Here, a worker is paid as per his efficiency, productivity or as per the production given by him. Efficient/sincere workers give more production and get higher reward in terms of wage payment. Group Monetary Incentives : In the group monetary incentives, the monetary benefit is not given individually but to a group of workers or to all workers in the Organisation. Workers have to work jointly/collectively as a team in order to secure the benefits of group monetary incentives. Bonus payment, pension, P.F, production/productivity bonus, profit sharing, etc. are the examples of group monetary incentives. For the employer/management, group incentives are more important as they offer many benefits to the management.
Drive to Be Excellent: Some people simply cannot tolerate being second; they are driven to win and be the best. Olympic athletes are an example of this drive to excel, as are some entrepreneurs and leaders. Muhammad Ali is quoted as saying, "I hated every minute of training, but I told myself, 'Don't quit. Suffer now and live the rest of your life as a champion.'" Sacrifice leads to success in this case.B. F. Skinner Skinner believed that people are motivated by rewards. Skinner's theory, operant conditioning, concerns reinforcement and punishment. Reinforcement is a stimulus that is given immediately after a behavior that will increase the likelihood that the target behavior will be repeated. Punishment is a stimulus that is given immediately after a behavior that will decrease the likelihood that the target behavior will be repeated. Reinforcement and Punishment are also further divided into 2 types, positive and negative. Positive is something that is added while negative means something has been taken away. These types are outlined in the following table: Scholer, A.A., Miele, D.B., Murayama, K., & Fujita, K. (in press). New directions in self-regulation: The role of metamotivational beliefs. Current Directions in Psychological Science. While it's normal to have periods where your motivation is high and others where your motivation is practically nonexistent, you can minimize the low periods with a little effort. A few simple changes in daily habits can naturally start to improve your motivation, and working with a counselor to challenge you can take your motivation to new levels. So if you're ready to achieve your goals, take the first step today.
Murayama, K., Kuratomi, K., Johnsen, L., Kitagami, S., & Hatano, A. (under review). Metacognitive inaccuracy of predicting one’s intrinsic motivation.Steven Reiss Steven Reiss believed that motivation was dependant on an individual's desires. Reiss identified 16 desires that he believed affected behavior, power, independence, curiosity, acceptance, order, saving, honor, idealism, social contact, family, status, vengeance, romance, eating, physical exercise, and tranquility.Attribution theory describes individual's motivation to formulate explanatory attributions ("reasons") for events they experience, and how these beliefs affect their emotions and motivations. Attributions are predicted to alter behavior, for instance attributing failure on a test to a lack of study might generate emotions of shame and motivate harder study. Important researchers include Fritz Heider and Bernard Weiner. Weiner's theory differentiates intrapersonal and interpersonal perspectives. Intrapersonal includes self-directed thoughts and emotions that are attributed to the self. The interpersonal perspective includes beliefs about the responsibility of others and emotions directed at other people, for instance attributing blame to another individual. Motivational Articles. Old Articles Please Read This Article on Prelims - 2015 Motivation! Articles on this page are contributed by V. Nagaraju, an Engineer by education, an aspirant who made it to the.. very good presentation on a driving force behind performance-motivation.Any organization if it aims at excellence and expertise should motivate its employees through their training programs so that the best in the employees comes out and it will be for the good of both the employer and the employee.
Abraham Maslow Abraham Maslow was a humanistic psychologist who believed people were motivated by survival and other needs. The needs he identified were physiological, security, needs of belonging, esteem, and self-actualization. Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1968). Chapter: Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In Spence, K. W., & Spence, J. T. The psychology of learning and motivation (Volume 2)..
Extrinsic motivation: this can be defined in a way behaviorist. The cause of the behavior comes from outside, such as a prize, a threat of punishment, etc. Intrinsic motivation is one that has no other.. Motivation can develop through an individual's involvement within their cultural group. Personal motivation often comes from activities a person believes to be central to the everyday occurrences in their community. An example of socio-cultural theory would be social settings where people work together to solve collective problems. Although individuals will have internalized goals, they will also develop internalized goals of others, as well as new interests and goals collectively with those that they feel socially connected to. Oftentimes, it is believed that all cultural groups are motivated in the same way. However, motivation can come from different child-rearing practices and cultural behaviors that greatly vary between cultural groups. TYPES OF MOTIVATION 1. Phonetical motivation implies a direct connection between the phonetic structure of the word and its meaning, e. g. cuckoo denotes a bird whose call is like its name
Motivational-Interviewing Motivational-Interviewing is a therapeutic technique developed by William Miller and Steven Rollnick. Their theory of motivation is that people are motivated to change when there is a discrepancy from where they are at the present moment to where they want to be. Part of motivational-interviewing is to emphasize this discrepancy without confrontation. In motivational-interviewing, confrontation is viewed as counter-productive because it elicits defensiveness or resistance to change. The idea is to get the person to identify their own discrepancy and desire to change rather than the therapist telling them what to do. Consider the following scenario. Motivation and Coaching: Understanding Motivation. Motivation is desire. It is the fire that fuels great performances, outstanding victories, persistence, perseverance, determination and drive
With some additional neuroimaging and behavioral experiments, we are now examining the underlying mechanisms of this time dependent effect of motivation (Ikeda, Castel, & Murayama, 2015; Murayama et al., 2015). why a motivation letter? Almost every graduate program requires some sort of an admissions essay in the application. It comes under different names: a letter of introduction, a personal statement.. Murayama, K., & Kuhbandner, C. (2011). Money enhances memory consolidation — but only for boring material. Cognition, 119(1), 120-124.
Such finding have important implications for school settings, where children are often encouraged to pursue tasks in order to gain rewards. The fear for educators is that, in some cases, rewarding kids might actually hurt their internal drive to learn.The work described here was funded by the Marie Curie Career Integration Grant (PCIG14-GA-2013-630680), JSPS KAKENHI (15H05401 and 16H06406), a grant from the American Psychological Foundation (F.J. McGuigan Early Career Investigator Prize), Leverhulme Trust Project Grant (RPG-2016-146), and Leverhulme Research Leadership Award (RL-2016-030). I thank my collaborators on these projects, including Andrew Elliot, Reinhard Pekrun, Alan Castel and Kenji Matsumoto.Motivating operations are factors that affect learned behaviour in a certain context. MOs have two effects: a value-altering effect, which increases or decreases the efficiency of a reinforcer, and a behavior-altering effect, which modifies learned behaviour that has previously been punished or reinforced by a particular stimulus.
Murayama, K. & Kitagami, S. (2014). Consolidation power of extrinsic rewards: Reward cues enhance long-term memory for irrelevant past events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 15-20. Intrinsic motivation is the type of motivation that comes from within the person. Such motivation is driven by the internal rewards and by the sense of satisfaction and pleasure one gets after completing.. The following conditions are listed: motivation, interest, emotional effect, communicative approach, using visual aids, feedback, self-confidence and having friends sharing interests Extrinsic: Motivation that is derived from outside source such as a friend, colleagues, seniors at Briefly, motivation can be described as a reason or cause by which a person or a group of people.. Exercise and see your motivation improve! Exercise has been proven to reduce the risk of major depression, increase energy, improve sleep, relieve stress, and boost your mood-all factors that can affect your motivation.
Another important piece of this theory is that motivation can give positive satisfaction but if not met, it won't necessarily create dissatisfaction. On the other hand, hygiene factors won't motivate a person to action but if they aren't met, they will cause dissatisfaction. In other words, people who get great benefits at their job won't necessarily be motivated to work harder. If they don't have any benefits, however, they will be unhappy or dissatisfied. In terms of motivation, people may have higher satisfaction at their jobs if they feel competent and are given appropriately challenging tasks. If they aren't given growth opportunities, it doesn't mean they will have a decrease in job satisfaction. Motivation to learn: An overview. Educational Psychology Interactive. The following definitions of motivation were gleaned from a variety of psychology textbooks and reflect the general consensus.. Incentive theory in psychology treats motivation and behaviour of the individual as they are influenced by beliefs, such as engaging in activities that are expected to be profitable. Incentive theory is promoted by behavioral psychologists, such as B.F. Skinner. Incentive theory is especially supported by Skinner in his philosophy of Radical behaviorism, meaning that a person's actions always have social ramifications: and if actions are positively received people are more likely to act in this manner, or if negatively received people are less likely to act in this manner.
Do rewards enhance learning outcomes? This is a question that has long sparked controversy in education literature. According to recent findings in cognitive neuroscience, the answer seems to be yes. Indeed, there have been a number of studies, including ours (Murayama & Kitagami, 2014), that have shown that rewards (e.g., money) enhance learning due to the modulation of hippocampal function by the reward network in the brain (Adcock, Thangavel, Whitfield-Gabrielli, Knutson & Gabrieli, 2006). On this basis, some argue for the value of reward in education (Howard-Jones & Jay, 2016). Motivational skills are highly valued by employers. Learn how to motivate others to get a positive Steps in the Motivational Process. Motivation is a process that requires careful strategy for success
Motivation is the experience of desire or aversion (you want something, or want to avoid or escape something). As such, motivation has both an objective aspect (a goal or thing you aspire to).. A lack of motivation without having effective motivation methods and motivation strategies can be a really annoying problem, especially when it becomes an obstacle to your personality development and..
1. Motivator factors - Simply put, these are factors that lead to satisfaction and motivate employees to work harder. Examples might include enjoying your work, feeling recognised and career progression A drive or desire can be described as a deficiency or need that activates behavior that is aimed at a goal or an incentive. These drives are thought to originate within the individual and may not require external stimuli to encourage the behavior. Basic drives could be sparked by deficiencies such as hunger, which motivates a person to seek food whereas more subtle drives might be the desire for praise and approval, which motivates a person to behave in a manner pleasing to others. Clayton Alderfer Clayton Alderfer expanded on Maslow's theory and categorized needs into 3 categories; existence, relatedness, and growth (ERG). Alderfer's existence need refers to physical needs such as food, water, shelter, etc. Relatedness needs are the need to have relationships with other people. Growth needs refer to the need to develop to one's full potential. You will see that these are very similar to the needs in Maslow's hierarchy. Contrary to Maslow's theory, however, Alderfer believed that needs are not met in any order but simultaneously to different degrees. Some people place more priority on "higher needs" than "lower needs," e.g. someone spends more time studying and meeting their growth needs than they spend eating or sleeping.
Motivation and emotion/Textbook/Motivation/Unconscious motivation. From Wikiversity. Motivation is the desire to achieve a goal, it can be defined as the process which initiates, guides.. Motivation is defined as the desire and action towards goal-directed behavior. This is an important concept in psychology as well as in business, schools, and other areas
At minimum, motivation requires the biological substrate for physical sensations of pleasure and pain; animals can thus want or disdain specific objects based on sense perception and experience. Motivation goes on to include the capacity to form concepts and to reason, which allows humans to be able to surpass this minimum state, with a much greater possible range of desires and aversions. This much greater range is supported by the ability to choose one's own goals and values, combined with "time horizons" for value achievement that can perhaps encompass years, decades, or longer, and the ability to re-experience past events. Some models treat as important the distinction between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, and motivation is an important topic in work, organizational psychology, administrative organization, management, as well as education. Lepper, M. R., Greene, D., & Nisbett, R. E. (1973). Undermining children’s intrinsic interest with extrinsic reward: A test of the “overjustification” hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28(1), 129-137. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0035519 Herzberg's Motivation Theory model, or Two Factor Theory, argues that there are two factors that an organization can adjust to influence motivation in the workplace ..motivate our students to intrinsically motivate themselves, there are five main areas in which we can help to create an environment that will offer the perfect conditions for intrinsic motivation to develop Procrastination is the act to voluntarily postpone or delay an intended course of action despite anticipating that you will be worse off because of that delay. While procrastination was once seen as a harmless habit, recent studies indicate otherwise. In a 1997 study conducted by Dianne Tice and William James Fellow Roy Baumeister at Case Western University, college students were given ratings on an established scale of procrastination, and tracked their academic performance, stress, and health throughout the semester. While procrastinators experienced some initial benefit in the form of lower stress levels (presumably by putting off their work at first), they ultimately earned lower grades and reported higher levels of stress and illness. Are you struggling with your study motivation? If you don't want to be studying, these motivational Just like when you're in the gym and your instructor shouts motivational comments to keep the..