tupolev tu-144 supersonic aircraft takeoff afterburner. The Soviet government published the concept of the Tu-144 in an article in the January 1962 issue of the magazine Technology of Air Transport While fatigue cracks are normal in aircraft, the usual occurrence is that a crack develops slowly and stops once it reaches the end of the panel of which larger parts are assembled. Thus an aircraft could fly with a minor crack for an extended time, until it could be fixed. The Tu-144 design was the opposite of standard practice, fostering a higher incidence of non-uniformities in alloy structure leading to crack formation and allowing a crack to develop fast and for many meters. Academician Fridlyander, leading Soviet metallurgist and long-term collaborator of Tupolev since mid-1940s through the 1990s, concludes his account of the Tu-144 program: "Airplane (the Tu-144) was doomed as soon as the decision was made to compose it of large monolithic fragments machined of large metal panels, this created its antipode, an unsafe, damageable design". However, the Airbus A-380 has large sections of wings and fuselage panels made with computer-controlled milling machines from a solid aluminum slab. The Tupolev TU-144 was one of the Soviets least successful project. The TU-144 could hold 40 more people than the Concorde and was slightly faster but it used more fuel and had less range, only..
. It was one of only two SSTs to enter commercial service, the other being Anglo-French Concorde The project was conceived in July 2014 and has been active since April 2015. Its goal is to accurately model flight dynamics, systems and instruments of the Tu-144 entirely in JSBSim. As discussed by Moon, economic efficiency alone would not have doomed the Tu-144 altogether; continuation of token flights for reasons of political prestige would have been possible, if only the aircraft itself would have allowed for it, but it did not. The Tu-144 was to a large extent intended to be and trumped as a symbol of Soviet technological prestige and superiority. Tupolev Tu-144 Blueprint. Related Posts: Boeing 787-800
A total of 16 airworthy Tu-144 aircraft were built. The last commercial passenger flight of the Tu-144 was in 1978. Production ceased in 1984. The military was unreceptive to Tupolev's approaches. Vasily Reshetnikov, the commander of Soviet strategic aviation and subsequently, a vice-commander of the Soviet Air Force, remembers how in 1972 he was dismayed by Tupolev's attempts to offer for military use the aircraft that "fell short of its performance target, was beset by reliability problems, fuel-thirsty and difficult to operate.
Given that the alloys used for both airplanes are almost identical and the thermodynamics of their critical edges is similar, the speeds achievable by each aircraft, while maintaining the same level of structural safety, would be about the same. The Tu-144S may have had an edge with its higher fuel consumption, as this fuel doubled as a heat discharge medium, allowing for more airframe cooling. The Tupolev Tu-144 is a four-engine supersonic airliner with a capacity of maximum 95 passengers developed by the Soviet Design Bureau OKB The Tu-144 was the world's first supersonic airliner
The causes of this incident remain controversial. A popular Russian theory was that the Tu-144 tried to avoid a French Mirage chase plane that was attempting to photograph its canards, which were very advanced for the time, and that the French and Soviet governments colluded with each other to cover up such details. The flight of the Mirage was denied in the original French report of the incident, perhaps because it was engaged in industrial espionage. More recent reports have admitted the existence of the Mirage (and the fact that the Russian crew was not told about the Mirage's flight) though not its role in the crash. The official press release did state: "though the inquiry established that there was no real risk of collision between the two aircraft, the Soviet pilot was likely to have been surprised." Howard Moon stresses that last-minute changes to the flight schedule would have disoriented the pilots in a cockpit with notably poor vision. He cites an eyewitness who claims the co-pilot had agreed to take a camera with him, which he may have been operating at the time of the evasive manoeuvre. This aircraft was reportedly sold in June 2001 for $11M via an on-line auction, but the aircraft sale did not proceed. Tejavia Systems, the company handling the transaction, reported in September 2003 that the deal was not signed as the replacement Kuznetsov NK-321 engines from a Tupolev Tu-160 bomber were military hardware and the Russian government would not allow them to be exported. #Tupolev144. 1er #avión supersónico en surcar el cielo. Su vuelo inaugural hace 50 años fue el pistoletazo de salida a 1 existencia donde se mezclan #tragedia, #delirio y #fracaso
Didn't concorde exist before Tupolev Tu-144? why did they copy the British's invention? Its a popular misconception that the Tu-144 is a knock-off of the Concorde. Everything differs, all to evident by the.. 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172.. This politically motivated rush, along with the fact that the project was essentially ideologically motivated rather than driven by intrinsic needs of the Soviet society, and with general technological insufficiencies of Soviet industrial base, contributed to the final undoing of the Tu-144 project. (Alexander Poukhov, one of the Tu-144 design engineers who subsequently rose to be one of the bureau's senior designers, estimated in 1998 that the Tu-144 project was 10–15 years beyond the USSR's capabilities at that time).[N 4] Moon suggests that subordination of available Soviet R&D resource allocation to the Tu-144 programme significantly slowed down the development of other Soviet aircraft projects, such as the IL-86 wide-body jet, and stagnated Soviet aviation development for almost a decade. URL: http://www.tupolev.ru/
The Tupolev Tu-144 (NATO codename: Charger; nicknamed Concordski) was a supersonic transport aircraft. It was the first supersonic transport (SST) and remains one of only two in the world to enter commercial service (along with the Aerospatiale-BAC Concorde) In the late 1970s Tupolev contemplated the development of a long-range heavy interceptor (DP-2) based on the Tu-144D also able to escort bombers on long-range missions. Later this project evolved into an aircraft for electronic countermeasures (ECM) to suppress enemy radars and facilitate bomber's penetration through enemy air defenses (Tu-144PP). In the early 1980s this functionality was supplanted with theatre and strategic reconnaissance (Tu-144PR).
The aircraft is unique for its retractable canards, which enable takeoff/landing at speeds not much higher than those of conventional airliners. Ustinov could not be put off that easily. He managed to persuade the Navy C-in-C (admiral) S.G. Gorshkov who agreed to accept the Tu-144 for Naval Aviation service as a long-range reconnaissance aircraft without consulting anyone on the matter. Mironenko rebeled against this decision, but the commander-in-chief would not hear of heed – the issue is decided, period. On learning of this I was extremely alarmed: if Mironenko had been pressured into taking the Tu-144, this meant I was going to be next. I made a phone call to Aleksandr Alekseyevich, urging him to take radical measures; I needn't have called because even without my urging Mironenko was giving his C-in-C a hard time. Finally Ustinov got wind of the mutiny and summoned Mironenko to his office. They had a long and heated discussion but eventually Mironenko succeeded in proving that Ustinov's ideas were unfounded. That was the last time we heard of Tu-144. . The Tu-144 first went supersonic on 5 June 1969, and on 26 May 1970 became the first commercial transport to exceed Mach 2. The frequent comparisons to Concorde led to the Tu-144 being known as "Concordski" in the West.
Early configurations of the Tu-144 were based on the unbuilt Tu-135 bomber, retaining the latter aircraft's canard layout, wings and nacelles. Deriving from the Tu-135 bomber, early Tupolev's design for supersonic passenger airplane was code-named Tu-135P before acquiring the Tu-144 project code. Template:Active Wiki Fixup Projects Project Tupolev Files. PT-154m for MSFS 2004 Le Tupolev Tu-144 (nom de code OTAN : Charger) est un avion de ligne supersonique quadriréacteur développé en URSS par le bureau d'études Tupolev. Avec le Concorde franco-britannique..
The Tupolev Tu-144 looked very similar to its Anglo-French competitor -- which inevitably earned it the nickname Concordski -- but it was somewhat more exotic and mysterious. And the Soviets' track.. C'est le bureau d'étude Tupolev avec Sergueï Mikhailovitch Yeger puis avec Dimitri Markov (en 1971) qui lança un projet qui était en réalité un Tupolev Tu-134 rallongé triréacteur The Tupolev Tu-144 (NATO: Charger) supersonic transport (SST) was the first of the two supersonic passenger airliners to fly. The other one was the Concorde. The decision to cease Tu-144D production was issued on 7 January 1982, followed by a USSR government decree dated 1 July 1983 to cease the whole Tu-144 programme and to use produced Tu-144 aircraft as flying laboratories. A formal decision to cease the Tu-144 programme was in all likelihood related, to an extent, to the generational change in the Soviet leadership and departure of those officials who had strong individual commitment to the Tu-144 and stakes in the project, and corresponding change in the bureaucratic balance. The Tu-144 fared worse after the death of Minister Petr Dementiev on 14 May 1977, but the last bureaucratic straw must have been Brezhnev's death on 10 November 1982.
Ve karşınızda Tupolev Tasarım Bürosundan çıkan Tupolev Tu-144 Dünyanın ilk süpersonik hızda uçan, sesten hızlı yolcu uçağı! Farklı isimlerle görmemiz mümkün; NATO kod adı: Charger.. Though the decision to cancel the Tu-144S passenger service came a few days after the Tu-144D crashed during the test flight on 23 May 1978, this crash was regarded as the last straw over mounting concerns about the reliability of the Tu-144. Even the fact that the technical reason for the crash was specific to the Tu-144D fuel pump system and did not apply to the Tu-144S did not help. The decision to pull the Tu-144S out of passenger service after merely 55 flights is thus more likely to be attributable to high incidence of failures during and before the scheduled flights. Tupolev Tu-134. Tupolev Tu-144 Suggesting low confidence of the Soviet decision-makers in Tu-144 is also the fact that only one route was ever used, with flights limited to once a week, despite having eight Tu-144S certified aircraft by the time passenger service commenced in 1977 and a number of routes suitable for supersonic flights. Booking was limited to 70–80 passengers a flight or less, well below the Tu-144's seating capacity, despite waiting lists. Over its 55 scheduled flights, Tu-144s transported 3,194 passengers, an average of 58 passengers per flight. With officials being acutely aware of the aircraft's poor reliability and fearful of possible crashes, Soviet decision-makers were purposefully limiting flight frequency to the absolute minimum possible that still allowed them to claim regular service, and also were constraining passenger load to minimize the impact and political fallout of a possible crash.
The Tupolev Tu-144 (NATO name: Charger') was a Soviet supersonic transport aircraft (SST) and remains one of only two SSTs to enter commercial service, the other being the Concorde Including the 55 passenger flights, there were 102 scheduled flights before the cessation of commercial service.
After the inaugural flight, two subsequent flights, during the next two weeks, were cancelled and the third flight rescheduled. The official reason given by Aeroflot for cancellation was bad weather at Alma-Ata, however when the journalist called the Aeroflot office in Alma-Ata about local weather, the office said that the weather there was perfect and one aircraft had already arrived that morning. Failures included decompression of the cabin in flight on 27 December 1977, and engine exhaust duct overheating causing the flight to be aborted and returned to the takeoff airport on 14 March 1978. CCCP-77107. Tupolev Tu-144. JetPhotos.com is the biggest database of aviation photographs with over 4 million screened photos online Tupolev. Wikipedia open wikipedia design. Tupolev grundades 1922 av Andrej Tupolev. De är kända för att ha utformat många banbrytande flygplan för både civilt och militärt bruk Despite the close similarity in appearance of the Tu-144 to the Anglo-French supersonic aircraft, there were significant differences in the control, navigation and engine systems. The Tu-144 lagged behind Concorde in areas such as braking and engine control. Concorde utilized an electronic engine control package from Lucas, Tupolev was not permitted to purchase it for the Tu-144 as it could also be used on military aircraft. Concorde's designers used airliner fuel as coolant for the cabin air conditioning and for the hydraulic system (see Concorde for details). Tupolev installed additional equipment on the Tu-144 to accomplish this, increasing the weight of the airliner.
In the early 1990s, a wealthy businesswoman, Judith DePaul, and her company IBP Aerospace negotiated an agreement with Tupolev, NASA, Rockwell and later Boeing. They offered a Tu-144 as a testbed for its High Speed Commercial Research program, intended to design a second-generation supersonic jetliner called the High Speed Civil Transport. In 1995, Tu-144D No. 77114 (with only 82.5 hours of flight time) was taken out of storage and after extensive modification at a cost of US$350 million, designated the Tu-144LL (where LL is a Russian abbreviation for Flying Laboratory, Russian: Letayuschaya Laboratoriya, Летающая Лаборатория). The aircraft made a total of 27 flights during 1996 and 1997. Though regarded as a technical success, the project was cancelled for lack of funding in 1999. Talk:Tupolev Tu-144. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. This is the talk page for discussing improvements to the Tupolev Tu-144 article Whats up Folks?Project Tupolev strikes again! 10 years and counting! They released the version 1.3 for the Tupolev Tu-154B2 for FSX. Release note from the Developers
The passenger service ran a semi-scheduled service until the first Tu-144D experienced an in-flight failure during a pre-delivery test flight, crash-landing, on the 23 May 1978 with two crew fatalities. The Tu-144's 55th and last scheduled passenger flight occurred on 1 June 1978. There have been two already: the British-French Concorde, discontinued because it was an economic failure : http:/enzperiodzwikipediazperiodzorg/wiki/Concorde and A Russian Tupolev144..
The Tupolev Tu-144 (NATO: Charger) supersonic transport (SST) was the first of the two supersonic passenger airliners to fly. The other one was the Concorde. The aircraft is unique for its retractable canards, which enable takeoff/landing at speeds not much higher than those of conventional airliners Блоги. Радио. Wiki. Tupolev Tu-144D v5.7. we have a plan to release the second beta 62 (ready). Does this mean a new IL62 :) − ~Anonymous~ From Wikipedia: It is unclear why Tu-144D's maximum achievable altitude would be lower than Concorde's even regular flight altitude, given that Tupolev's data claim better lift-to-drag ratio for the.. Over the course of the Tu-144 project, the Tupolev bureau created designs of a number of military versions of Tu-144 but none were ever built. In the early 1970s, Tupolev was developing the Tu-144R intended to carry and air-launch up to three solid-fueled ICBMs. The launch was to be performed from within Soviet air space, with the aircraft accelerating to its maximum speed before releasing the missiles. The original design was based on the Tu-144S, but later changed to be derived from the Tu-144D. Another version of the design was to carry air-launched long-range cruise missiles similar to the Kh-55. The study of this version envisioned the use of liquid hydrogen for the afterburners.
In retrospect it is apparent that the Tu-144 suffered from a rush in the design process to the detriment of thoroughness and quality, and this rush to get airborne exacted a heavy penalty later. The rush is apparent even in outward timing: the 1963 government decree launching the Tu-144 programme defined that the Tu-144 should fly in 1968, so it did indeed fly on the last days of 1968 to fulfill government goals set five years earlier. (By the way of comparison, Concorde's first flight was originally scheduled for February 1968, but was pushed back several times until March 1969 in order to iron out problems and test components better). Unlike Concorde development, the Tu-144 project was also strongly driven by ideologically and politically motivated haste of Soviet self-imposed racing against Concorde; Aleksei Poukhov, one of Tupolev's designers, reminiscences: "For the Soviet Union to allow the West to get ahead and leave it behind at that time was quite unthinkable. We not only had to prevent the West from getting ahead, but had to compete and leapfrog them, if necessary. This was the task Khruschev set us... We knew that when Concorde's maiden flight had been set for February or March, 1969, we would have to get our plane up and flying by the end of 1968."[N 3] After ceasing the Tu-144 programme, Tu-144D No. 77114 (aircraft 101 or 08-2) carried out test flights between the 13–20 July 1983 to establish 13 world records registered with the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI). These records established an altitude of 18,200 metres (59,700 ft) with a range of loads up to 30 tonnes, and a sustained speed of 2,032 km/h (1,263 mph; 1,097 kn) over a closed circuit of up to 2,000 km (1,200 mi; 1,100 nmi) with similar loads. The note about loads, does not hold much significance as payload was compensated fuel load reduction to maintain the same overall takeoff weight and the records for a closed circuit length, suggest that the aircraft was only carrying a partial fuel load.
tupolev tu-144. şükela: tümü | bugün. dünyanın ilk supersonic yolcu uçağı. concorde'un ikizi gibidir, hemen hemen her özelliği aynıdır. ilk uçuşunu concorde'dan bir sene önce, 1968 senesinde.. The Tupolev Tu-144 is a retired jet airliner and commercial supersonic transport aircraft . It was the world's first commercial SST , the second being the Anglo-French Concorde X-Plane 9 And 10 Tupolev Tu-204. The Tupolev Tu-204 is a twin-engined medium-range jet airliner capable of carrying 210 passengers, designed by Tupolev and produced by Aviastar SP and Kazan.. The Tupolev Tu-144 (NATO reporting name: Charger) was a supersonic transport (SST) constructed under management of the Soviet Tupolev design bureau headed by Alexei Tupolev (1925-2001)
Tupolev Tu-144 (NATO rapor adı: Charger), SSCB'de Tupolev tasarım ofisinde, Alexei Tupolev Batılı gözlemciler Tu-144'e Concorde'a benzerliğinden ötürü Concordski (bazen Konkordski) adını.. The Tu-144 programme was cancelled by a Soviet government decree on 1 July 1983 that also provided for future use of the remaining Tu-144 aircraft as airborne laboratories. In 1985, Tu-144D were used to train pilots for the Soviet Buran space shuttle. In 1986–1988 Tu-144D No. 77114, built in 1981, was used for medical and biological research of high-altitude atmosphere radiological conditions. Further research was planned but not completed, due to lack of funding. . Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 9/30/2017
In the late 1970s, Soviet insiders were intensely hopeful in conversations with Western counterparts of reintroducing Tu-144 passenger service for the 1980 Moscow Olympic games, even perhaps for flights to Western Europe, given the aircraft's high visibility, but apparently the technical condition of the aircraft weighed against such re-introduction even for token flights. The Tu-144S model, of which nine were produced, featured the Kuznetsov NK-144F turbofan engines that offered better fuel efficiency over the original engine. The four engines each had a maximum afterburning thrust of 200 kilonewtons (45,000 lbf) and each had separate inlet ducts in each nacelle and variable ramps in the inlets, giving a cruising speed of 2,000 km/h (1,200 mph; 1,100 kn) (Mach 1.88). This also gave it a longer range of 3,080 km (1,910 mi; 1,660 nmi), but still less than half the range of Concorde. The Tupolev Tu-144LL supersonic flying laboratory showed off its sleek lines in a low-level pass over the Zhukovsky Air Development Center near Moscow, Russia, on a 1998 research flight
While in the air, the Tu-144 underwent a violent downwards manoeuvre. Trying to pull out of the subsequent dive, the Tu-144 broke apart and crashed, destroying 15 houses and killing all six people on board the Tu-144 and eight more on the ground. Tupolev Tu144. I would greatly appreciate any information on the above aircraft. The Tu-144 was used on mail flights within the USSR in 1975 to build up operational data of how to handle the aircraft..
Although its last commercial passenger flight was in 1978, production of the Tu-144 did not cease until 1984, when construction of the airframe was stopped and left partially complete. Consider aircraft Tupolev Tu-144. The first flight of the prototype Tu-144 31.12.1968 was performed. During the creation of the work carried out in two directions simultaneously To put the numbers in perspective, Concorde's service ceiling under a typical Transatlantic flight payload of 10 tonnes is 18,290 m (60,000 ft),[N 5] and this is higher than the record set by the Tu-144D. According to unverified sources, during a 26 March 1974 test flight a Concorde reached its maximum speed ever of 2,370 km/h (1,470 mph; 1,280 kn) (Mach 2.23) at an altitude of 19,415 m (63,700 ft) and during subsequent test flights reached maximum altitude of 20,700 m (67,900 ft). It is unclear why Tu-144D's maximum achievable altitude would be lower than Concorde's even regular flight altitude given that Tupolev's data claim better lift-to-drag ratio for the Tu-144 (over 8.0 for Tu-144D vs Concorde's 7.3–7.7 at Mach 2.x) and the thrust of the Tu-144D's RD-36-51 engines is higher than Concorde's Olympus 593 engines.
Andrei Tupolev. In 1968, Tupolev introduced the world's first supersonic airliner, the Tu-144. Over 70 types of aircraft were designed and put into mass production under his supervision The Tupolev Tu-144 is a retired jet airliner and commercial supersonic transport aircraft . a>, two months before the first flight of the Concorde. The Tu-144 first went supersonic on 5 June 1969, and.. Tu-144, primer avión supersónico de pasajeros del mundo, realizó su primer vuelo el 31 de diciembre de 1968 y durante unos años se mantuvo en pruebas. La historia del TU-144 ha sido azarosa y complicada The only Tu-144, tail number 77112, on display outside the former Soviet Union was acquired by the Auto & Technikmuseum Sinsheim in Germany, where it was shipped – not flown – in 2001 and where it now stands, in its original Aeroflot livery, on display next to an Air France Concorde.
Hello does anyone know how to properly install the Tupolev Tu144 in FS2004 or one for FSX i tried to do it in both games to no avail i need help also is there a Tupolev Tu144 for FSX Tupolev Tasarım Bürosundan çıkan Tu-144,ilk uçuşunu 1968 Aralık ayında, Concorde'tan 2 ay önce gerçekleştirdi, 1969 Haziran ayında ses hızını aştı, 1970 Mayısında ise Mach 2'yi aşan ilk ticari uçak..
Reshetnikov goes on to remember: The development and construction of the supersonic airliner, the future Tu-144, was included in the five-year plan and was under the auspices of the influential D.F. Ustinov (then Soviet minister of defence and confidant of Brezhnev, who represented interests of defence industries lobby in opposition to the military) who regarded this mission as a personal responsibility – not so much to his country and people as to "dear Leonid Il'ych" (Brezhnev) whom he literally worshipped, sometimes to the point of shamelessness... Yet the supersonic passenger jet was apparently not making headway and, to the dismay of its curator, it looked like Brezhnev might be disappointed. It was then that Dmitry Fedorovich (Ustinov) jumped at someone's bright idea to foist Aeroflot's "bride in search of a wedding" on the military. After it had been rejected in bomber guise, Ustinov used the Military Industrial Commission (one of the most influential Soviet government bodies) to promote the aircraft to the Strategic Aviation as a reconnaissance or ECM platform, or both. It was clear to me that these aircraft could not possibly work in concert with any bomber or missile carrier formation; likewise I could not imagine them operating solo as "Flying Dutchmen" in a war scenario, therefore I resolutely turned down the offer. Tupolev Tu-144D Charger. Published: September 22nd, 2012. The Tu-144 was quite a special aircraft. It was the first supersonic passenger plane to fly, beating the Concorde by two months
Along with early Tu-134s, the Tu-144 was one of the last commercial aircraft with a braking parachute. Yet another popular Russian theory (even claimed to be the official Soviet version - sources needed) is that the co-pilot has a video camera with him to film the flight. He dropped the camera, and its shoulder belt contacted the electric switcher of trimmer control and engaged it at the wrong moment of time. FamilySearch Wiki Tupolev 144 on WN Network delivers the latest Videos and Editable pages for News & Events, including Entertainment, Music, Sports, Science and more, Sign up and share your playlists Not only that but the Tu-144 had to keep its after burners blasting to maintain supersonic flight, this only brings disadvantages. It still ranks second after the Buran in my personal list of best soviet union copies
Tupolev Tupolev Tu-334 Model Kits. KingKit are UK specialist suppliers of new and used Aircraft model kits Buy Tupolev Tu-144 by Yefim Gordon (ISBN: 9780764348945) from Amazon's Book Store. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders Andrei A. Tupolev continued to improve the Tu-144 with upgrades and changes on the Tu-144 prototype. While both Concorde and the Tu-144 prototype had ogival delta wings, the Tu-144's wing lacked Concorde's conical camber. Production Tu-144s replaced this wing with a double-delta wing including such conical camber, and they added a simple but practical device: two small retractable canard surfaces, one on either side of the forward section on the aircraft, to increase lift at low speeds. While several Tu-144s were donated to museums in Moscow Monino, Samara and Ulyanovsk, at least two Tu-144D remained in open storage in Moscow Zhukovsky. An Aeroflot freight-only service recommenced using the new production variant Tu-144D ("D" for Dal'nyaya – "long range") aircraft on 23 June 1979, including longer routes from Moscow to Khabarovsk made possible by the more efficient Kolesov RD-36-51 turbojet engines, which also increased the maximum cruising speed to Mach 2.15.
Two U.S. research pilots evaluated the Tupolev Tu-144 supersonic transport aircraft on three dedicated flights: one subsonic and two supersonic profiles The Tupolev Tu-144 (NATO codename: Charger; nicknamed Concordski) was a supersonic transport aircraft. It was the first supersonic transport (SST) and remains one of only two in the world to enter commercial service (along with the Aerospatiale-BAC Concorde)
One problem for passengers during flights was the very high level of noise inside the cabin. The noise came partially from the engines and partially from the air conditioning and the aircraft skin cooling system. Unlike conventional aircraft, this cooling system was absolutely vital for supersonic cruise to cool off the aircraft skin, prevent it from overheating and losing structural integrity. Heat generated by intense air-to-surface friction in supersonic flight is passed to the coolant (cabin air, in case of both the Tu-144 and Concorde) and subsequently discharged via heat exchangers to the fuel stream right before it is pumped to the engines. Unlike Concorde, the Tu-144 cooling system was very noisy. Passengers seated next to each other could have a conversation only with difficulty, and those seated two seats apart could not hear each other even when screaming and had to pass hand-written notes instead. Noise in the back of the aircraft was unbearable. Alexei Tupolev acknowledged the problem to foreign passengers and promised to fix it.[N 1] andrej-tupolev-skonstruktor-sssr Tu-144 pilot Aleksandr Larin remembers a troublesome flight around 25 January 1978. The flight with passengers suffered the failure of 22 to 24 on-board systems. Seven to eight systems failed before takeoff; given the large number of foreign TV and radio journalists aboard the flight, and also some other foreign notables aboard, it was decided to proceed with the flight in order to avoid the embarrassment of cancellation. After takeoff, failures continued to multiply. While the aircraft was supersonic en route to the destination airport, Tupolev bureau's crisis center predicted that front and left landing gear would not extend and that the aircraft would have to land on right gear alone, at the aircraft landing speed of over 300 kilometres per hour (190 mph; 160 kn). Due to expected political fallout, Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev was personally notified of what was going on in the air. With the accumulated failures, an alarm siren went off immediately after the takeoff with sound and volume similar to that of a civil defense warning. The crew could not figure a way to switch it off and the siren stayed on throughout the remaining 75 minutes flight. Eventually the captain ordered the navigator to borrow a pillow from the passengers and stuff it inside the siren's horn. Luckily, all landing gears extended and aircraft was able to land. The final passenger flight of Tu-144 on around 30 May 1978 involved valve failure on one of the fuel tanks.
Tags: bizavnews, bizjet, business aviation, rusjet, tu-204, tupolev, ту-204, туполев In retrospect, the most fatal design decision for Tu-144 was the decision to assemble it from large machined blocks and panels, many over 19 m (62 ft) long and 0.64 to 1.27 m (2.1 to 4.2 ft) wide. While at the time, this approach was heralded as an advanced feature of the Tu-144 design program, it turned out that large whole-moulded and machined parts contained inconsistencies in the alloys structure that cracked at stress levels below what the part was supposed to withstand. Once a crack started to develop, it spread quickly for many meters, with nothing to stop it. In 1976 during repeat-load and static testing at TsAGI (Russia's Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute), a Tu-144S airframe cracked at 70% of expected flight stress with cracks running many meters in both directions from their origin. Neither Concorde nor the Tu-144 are limited in their maximum speed by the airframe drag, nor by the engines' thrust. They are limited by the airframe heating and structural integrity of their similar aluminium alloys. The Tu-144 prototype (airplane No. 68001) may have had an edge since about 15–20% of its parts were built of titanium. Indeed, the Tu-144 No. 68001 briefly achieved a maximum speed of 2,443 km/h (1,518 mph; 1,319 kn) (Mach 2.26) during one of the test flights on 25 May 1970. However the use of titanium for production Tu-144's was radically cut down and the Tu-144S/Tu-144D were built almost entirely of aluminium alloys with titanium and stainless steel used only for the leading edges, elevons, rudder and under-surface of the rear fuselage (which was heated by engine exhaust, since Tu-144 engines were located close to the fuselage).
The dimmer civil prospects for Tu-144 were becoming, the more Tupolev tried to "sell" the aircraft to the military. One of the last attempts to sell a military version of the Tu-144 was the Tu-144MR, a project for a long-range reconnaissance aircraft for the Soviet Navy intended to provide targeting information to the Navy's ships and submarines on sea and oceanic theaters of operations. Another proposed navy version was to have a strike capability (two Kh-45 air-to-surface cruise missiles), along with a reconnaissance function. Tupolev TU-144 the Russian Concorde. The following taken from Wikipedia: A Tu-144 crashed in 1973 at the Paris Air Show, delaying its further development The Tu-144S went into service on 26 December 1975, flying mail and freight between Moscow and Alma-Ata in preparation for passenger services, which commenced on 1 November 1977. At the Paris Air Show on 3 June 1973, the development program of the Tu-144 suffered severely when the first Tu-144S production airliner (reg 77102) crashed. A local Zhukovsky newspaper[which?] reported that Tupolev offered to restore a Tu-144 (possible No. 77116) to flying condition for the 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Sochi, to transport the Olympic flame and take part in an air show. Given the time in storage, the history of this aircraft and the claims that hull No. 77116 believed to have been dismantled for metal[unreliable source?], this report seems unlikely.